## More on Debian Jessie/Ubuntu Trusty packet capture woes

Back in September I wrote about a problem we’d come across when capturing traffic with pcap_dispatch() or pcap_next_ex() on Ubuntu Trusty or Debian Jessie. When the traffic was slow, we saw packets not being captured.

We’ve since done a bit more digging. The problem, we think, is a bug in the Linux kernel select() system call. With both pcap_dispatch() and
pcap_next_ex() we’re using a central loop that is basically:

 pcap_dispatch();
select(pcapfd, timeout);


The length of timeout in the select() call shouldn’t matter. But it does. In our test scenario, set it to 1ms and every packet in a ping to an otherwise idle network connection will be captured. Set it to 2s and most or all will be missed.

Robert Edmonds has suggested that it’s this kernel bug. Thanks, Robert – that looks like the problem to us. This was fixed in kernel 3.19. We’ve filed a Debian bug and a Ubuntu bug.

So, what can you do about it for now?

• If using Ubuntu Trusty, consider switching to the LTS Enablement Stack. This has the fix applied.
• If using Debian Jessie, consider switching to a 4.9 series kernel from Jessie backports,
• Otherwise consider reducing the timeout in your call to select(). As noted above, this certainly improves the situation for our specific test scenario. However, we can’t be confident that it is a definitive fix; make sure you test your particular circumstances.

## Packet capture woes with libpcap on Ubuntu Trusty and Debian Jessie

Usually when you’re using libpcap to capture network traffic, your chief worry will be whether or not your application will keep up with the flow of traffic.

Today, though, I’ve stubbed my toe on a problem with traffic that’s too slow. It happens with both Ubuntu Trusty and Debian Jessie. If there’s a gap between packets of more than about 50 milliseconds, the first packet to arrive after the gap will be dropped and you’ll never see it. I was capturing DNS queries and responses, and found that with a query rate of under 20 queries per second you start dropping queries. By the time you’re down to 15 queries per second, nearly every query is dropped.

After spotting that tcpdump doesn’t have this problem, and much experimentation later, it’s not quite as simple as that. Whether or not you drop packets depends on the libpcap API you are using. If you’re using pcap_loop() to capture packets, you can stop worrying. This works properly. I guess that tcpdump is using pcap_loop() to capture packets and that’s why it works.

If, on the other hand, you’re using pcap_dispatch() or pcap_next_ex(), as the documentation urges you to do, than you’re doomed. This is regardless of whether you are using blocking or non-blocking mode.

So, what can you do? Your choices are limited.

1. Switch your application to using pcap_loop(). If you were using non-blocking mode with either pcap_dispatch() or pcap_next_ex(), this will be non-trivial, as pcap_loop() doesn’t observe non-blocking, but always blocks. It won’t be straightforward either if you’re using pcap_next_ex() in your own loop.
2. Upgrade. The problem is fixed if you upgrade Ubuntu to Xenial. I also found the problem apparently fixed by updating Jessie to the 4.7.0 kernel in Debian Backports.

## Patch to APC PowerChute Network Shutdown for Ubuntu

The following patch fixes the install script for Ubuntu 13.04

--- install.sh~orig 2013-09-25 16:07:54.772107691 +0000
+++ install.sh 2013-09-26 12:05:46.214115186 +0000
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#!/bin/sh
+#!/bin/bash
######################################################################
#
# PowerChute Network Shutdown v.3.0.1
@@ -22,6 +22,7 @@
JRE_REQUIRED_MINI=0
JRE_REQUIRED_MICRO=0
LINUX="Linux"
+LINUX_UBUNTU="Linux_Ubuntu"
SOLARIS="Solaris"
HPUX="HP-UX"
AIX="AIX"
@@ -288,6 +289,11 @@
# We're a Linux derivative, decide which one.
if [ -f /etc/vima-release ] || [ -f /etc/vma-release ]; then
OS=$VIMA + elif [ -x /usr/bin/lsb_release ]; then + /usr/bin/lsb_release -i | grep Ubuntu > /dev/null + if [$? -eq 0 ]; then
+ OS=$LINUX_UBUNTU + fi else grep XenServer /etc/redhat-release > /dev/null 2>&1 if [$? -eq 0 ]; then
@@ -368,6 +374,11 @@
PCBE_STARTUP=/etc/rc.d/init.d/PBEAgent
PCS_STARTUP=/etc/rc.d/init.d/pcs
;;
+ $LINUX_UBUNTU) + STARTUP=/etc/init.d/PowerChute + PCBE_STARTUP=/etc/init.d/PBEAgent + PCS_STARTUP=/etc/init.d/pcs + ;;$SOLARIS)
STARTUP=/etc/rc2.d/S99PowerChute
PCBE_STARTUP=/etc/rc2.d/S99PBEAgent
@@ -563,6 +574,9 @@
/etc/rc.d/init.d/PowerChute stop
fi
;;
+ $LINUX_UBUNTU) + /etc/init.d/PowerChute stop + ;;$SOLARIS)
/etc/rc2.d/S99PowerChute stop
;;
@@ -977,6 +991,10 @@
cp Linux/notifier.sh notifier
cp Linux/shutdown.sh shutdown
;;
+ $LINUX_UBUNTU) + cp Linux/notifier.sh notifier + cp Linux/shutdown.sh shutdown + ;;$SOLARIS)
cp Solaris/notifier.sh notifier
cp Solaris/shutdown.sh shutdown
@@ -1057,6 +1075,14 @@
rm -f /etc/rc.d/rc4.d/*99PowerChute
rm -f /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/*99PowerChute
rm -f /etc/rc.d/rc6.d/*99PowerChute
+ elif [ $OS = "$LINUX_UBUNTU" ] ; then
+ rm -f /etc/rc0.d/*99PowerChute
+ rm -f /etc/rc1.d/*99PowerChute
+ rm -f /etc/rc2.d/*99PowerChute
+ rm -f /etc/rc3.d/*99PowerChute
+ rm -f /etc/rc4.d/*99PowerChute
+ rm -f /etc/rc5.d/*99PowerChute
+ rm -f /etc/rc6.d/*99PowerChute
fi
fi
}
@@ -1069,6 +1095,14 @@
elif [ -f /sbin/chkconfig ]; then
chkconfig PowerChute on
+ elif [ $OS = "$LINUX_UBUNTU" ] ; then
+ ln -s /etc/init.d/PowerChute /etc/rc0.d/K99PowerChute
+ ln -s /etc/init.d/PowerChute /etc/rc1.d/K99PowerChute
+ ln -s /etc/init.d/PowerChute /etc/rc2.d/S99PowerChute
+ ln -s /etc/init.d/PowerChute /etc/rc3.d/S99PowerChute
+ ln -s /etc/init.d/PowerChute /etc/rc4.d/S99PowerChute
+ ln -s /etc/init.d/PowerChute /etc/rc5.d/S99PowerChute
+ ln -s /etc/init.d/PowerChute /etc/rc6.d/K99PowerChute
else
ln -s /etc/rc.d/init.d/PowerChute /etc/rc.d/rc0.d/K99PowerChute
ln -s /etc/rc.d/init.d/PowerChute /etc/rc.d/rc1.d/K99PowerChute
@@ -1120,6 +1154,14 @@
if [ -f /sbin/chkconfig ]; then
chkconfig PowerChute off
chkconfig --del PowerChute
+ elif [ $OS = "$LINUX_UBUNTU" ] ; then
+ rm -f /etc/rc0.d/*99PowerChute
+ rm -f /etc/rc1.d/*99PowerChute
+ rm -f /etc/rc2.d/*99PowerChute
+ rm -f /etc/rc3.d/*99PowerChute
+ rm -f /etc/rc4.d/*99PowerChute
+ rm -f /etc/rc5.d/*99PowerChute
+ rm -f /etc/rc6.d/*99PowerChute
else
rm -f /etc/rc.d/rc1.d/K99PowerChute
rm -f /etc/rc.d/rc2.d/S99PowerChute

## Flush DNS cache on Ubuntu

This weekend I came across several pages on the web suggesting ways to flush the DNS cache on Ubuntu. I will not point to the offending pages here but they are easy to find with Google. Most of them are wrong in several ways.

1. Ubuntu doesn’t install a DNS cache by default
2. Most of the pages say something along the lines of to flush the DNS cache you need to restart the nscd deamon.
3. See 1
4. As a result of 1 – They tell you to install nscd so that you can then restart nscd!
5. I redirect your attention to issue 1.

If you really want a local cache then I would suggest installing unbound which will work better and give you DNSSEC as well.

## Ubuntu, efi booting and Nvidia

I have just set up a Ubuntu 12.10 workstation on a new motherboard (ASUS P8Z77 WS) which has efi instead of the traditional BIOS and installed a NVidia Quadro 600 graphics card.

You can ignore the efi and install your OS as standard if you want. The efi provides BIOS compatibility. However, that would be too easy!

#### efi booting

Getting the Ubuntu DVD to install in efi booting mode is easy. With the DVD in the drive the efi sees both a efi and regular version of the DVD. Just set the boot order to start with the efi version of the DVD, you get a text display with several options including one to install Ubuntu. At the end of the install Grub2 is installed and configured to support efi booting. You may need to update the efi firmware to get the newly installed Ubuntu to boot.

#### Nvidia drivers

There is some mention on the web that the nvidia drivers may not work with efi booting. If you rely on Ubuntu to do the correct thing when you apt-get install nvidia-current then you might think that is correct. However, after a bit of investigation, they work fine for me. The major problem is that the Nouveau display driver is getting control of the card before the nvidia one does. You can see which driver is loaded by using

lspci -v

You will get output like this (This example is after fixing things, the “Kernel driver in use” line shows nouveau by default)

04:00.0 VGA compatible controller: NVIDIA Corporation GF108GL [Quadro 600] (rev a1) (prog-if 00 [VGA controller])
Subsystem: NVIDIA Corporation Device 0835
Flags: bus master, fast devsel, latency 0, IRQ 16
Memory at f6000000 (32-bit, non-prefetchable) [size=16M]
Memory at e8000000 (64-bit, prefetchable) [size=128M]
Memory at f0000000 (64-bit, prefetchable) [size=32M]
I/O ports at e000 [size=128]
[virtual] Expansion ROM at f7000000 [disabled] [size=512K]
Kernel driver in use: nvidia
Kernel modules: nvidia, nouveau, nvidiafb

You can remove the offending Xorg driver like this:

sudo apt-get --purge remove xserver-xorg-video-nouveau

However that doesn’t actually remove the nouveau kernel module. A quick fix is to:

sudo rm -rf /lib/modules/3.5.0-18-generic/kernel/drivers/gpu/drm/nouveau

and then rebuild the initramfs

sudo update-initramfs -u

This final command is important as it removes the offending driver from the boot ram disk.

## Library Versioning

I have been discovering all about library versioning. What I found came as a surprise to me and others especially those from a sysadmin background.

Basically it all comes down to the fact that the numbers on the end of a library name may not be what you expect and it is even more complex on OS X.

### Libtool on Linux

For example consider the following libraries on a recent CentOS 6.2 install:

• /lib64/libparted-2.1.so.0.0.0
• /lib64/libproc-3.2.8.so
• /lib64/libgcrypt.so.11.5.3

These show the three different ways in which a library may be versioned. Chapter 7 of the libtool manual discuses this subject. Libtool library versions are purely concerned with the supported API or interface that the library supports. It determines what the linker will allow to be linked.

libtool library versions are described by three integers:

• current
• The most recent interface number that this library implements.
• revision
• The implementation number of the current interface.
• age
• The difference between the newest and oldest interfaces that this library imple- ments. In other words, the library implements all the interface numbers in the range from number current – age to current.

If two libraries have identical current and age numbers, then the dynamic linker chooses the library with the greater revision number.

This is (or should be) what you see for libgcrypt.so.11.5.3. Running gpg –version shows that the version of libgcrypt is in fact

# gpg --version
gpg (GnuPG) 2.0.14
libgcrypt 1.4.5

The version of libgcrypt is 1.4.5 but its API is 11.5.3.

In order to set the Libtool library version you set the  -version-info 11:5:3 flag using libmylib_la_LDFLAGS in your Makefile.am (See the automate manual).

By contrast /lib64/libproc-3.2.8.so has no numbers after the .so. They all appear before it. This reflects the fact that the developers, for whatever reason decided to use the version number of the application in the library. Running free gives

# free -V
procps version 3.2.8

This is achieved by using the flag  -release in place of -version-info in Makefile.am.

libparted-2.1.so.0.0.0 shows both. Running parted gives

# parted -v
parted (GNU parted) 2.1

### OS X

According to Fink the situation on OS X is slightly different. There is a “strict distinction between shared libraries and dynamically loadable modules”. On linux any “shared code can be used as a library and for dynamic loading”. On OS X there are two types of library MH_DYLIB (a shared library) and MH_BUNDLE (a module). MH_DYLIB carry the extension .dylib and can be linked against in the familiar -lmylib at compile/link time. They can not be loaded as a module using dlopen(). MH_BUNDLE on the other hand can be dlopened. Apple suggest naming these .bundle however, much ported software uses .so instead. It is not directly possible to link against bundles as if they were shared libraries.

## Installing grub2 on GNU/Linux Software Raid

I have been setting up a two machines with software raid to use as Xen virtual environments. The two machines have 5 and 4 500GB disks. I decided to run Gentoo as the Dom0  OS because there is lots of good documentation for it and it has always been my favorite GNU/Linux distribution. The install of the OS and xen is easy. I opted for the latest Xen 4.0.1rc3-pre code. Just emerge xen and xen-tools to get all the prerequisites and the unmerge them and build the latest source. Creating the RAID arrays was also easy. I did the following.

## Ubuntu and MAC Addresses on Parallels Clones

I have been trying to clone a ubuntu install on parallels using the Parallels clone function. Unfortunately the network interface failed to work with the new MAC address assigned to the virtual interface during cloning. ifconfig didn’t show the interface at all and lshw -C network showed the interface as disabled.
Eventually I found that the mac address is used in the udev rule that creates the network device. Changing the file /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules to have the correct mac address fixed things.